This oral history essay examines the experiences of Chilean exiles who left their country after the overthrow of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende. The first section examines trajectories from Chile to Canada, and includes memories of the 1970 election and 1973 coup d’état. In the second section, we hear from the same Chileans as they reflect upon adjusting and remembering, as well as the legacy and lessons of the coup in Chile.
The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923, was intended to prevent Chinese immigrants from entering Canada. It proceeded from an extensive history of discrimination against Asian immigrants. While it was in force, only a handful of Chinese immigrants were able to enter Canada. Even after this exclusionary legislation was repealed in 1947, significant barriers remained against Chinese immigrants seeking entry. Those obstacles were challenged and reduced over time, and now China is a major country of origin for new Canadians.
Over the last several decades, Canada has become increasingly dependent on foreign workers to meet its growing labour shortage. Canadian officials implemented programs to meet economic needs and support diplomatic interests, often using foreign labour that did not meet official notions of a ‘desirable’ immigrant. In some of the movements noted below, domestic workers/caregivers were admitted into Canada but excluded from a path to permanent residency, while others were able to acquire Canadian citizenship.
This article gives the history of the establishment of the Barr Colony, or what is now Lloydminster, Saskatchewan/Alberta, which began in 1903 as an all-British settlement. Founded by a group of nearly 2,000 British immigrants, the colony was led by Isaac M. Barr and later George E. Lloyd, both Anglican clergymen. The paper details the way in which Barr and Lloyd’s specific ideas about empire, gender, and religion shaped their colonial endeavours.
This article gives the history of the establishment of the Barr Colony, or what is now Lloydminster Saskatchewan/Alberta, which began in 1903 as an all-British settlement. Founded by a group of nearly 2,000 British immigrants, the colony was led by Isaac M. Barr and later George E. Lloyd, both Anglican clergymen. The article details the way in which Barr and Lloyd’s specific ideas about empire, gender, and religion shaped their colonial endeavours.
The Supreme Court of Canada’s 1985 Singh decision had far-reaching implications for refugee rights in Canada. The Court ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms applied to every person who is physically present in Canada and that this entitled them to fundamental justice under the law. Therefore, refugee claimants had the right to a full oral hearing of their claims during the refugee determination process.
From the filles du roi to assisting Syrian refugees in 2015, colonial and Canadian authorities used concepts of family as part of their effort to control and shape immigration. The resulting policies promoted “desirable” settlers and discouraged or blocked those imagined to be “undesirable,” often intersecting with other prejudices, including those based on “race,” age, and sexual and gender identity.
Historian Steven Schwinghamer maintains that public expertise operates in historic sites, including Pier 21, in deep and important ways, whether it is engaged by the institution or not. Creating an open exchange between visitors and the institution will enable the institution to learn from their visitors’ organic knowledge of the past.
Following the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, 11,200 Prague Spring refugees were resettled in Canada. This movement included many experienced professionals and skilled tradespeople. This article examines how these refugees navigated language training and barriers to employment, including professional accreditation, and examines how this experience shaped bureaucratic and public views of refugee integration. This article focuses on resettlement and integration efforts in Ontario, since roughly half of the refugees were permanently resettled in the province.